A role, defined in the PPS 1, that aims to implement policies on climate change successfully. This means any carbon reduction targets and trajectories in strategies must be a particular focus for monitoring and review. Regional and local monitoring should also be closely linked to, and reflect updates to the national Climate Change Programme.
PPS 1 para 34
Actions taken to adjust natural or human systems in response to existing or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.
The ability to adapt to the effects resulting from changes in climate. A vulnerability assessment is an important part of understanding adaptive capacity as different individuals, communities, organisations and services can be affected in a range of ways by the same impact. The presence of adaptive measures will help improve adaptive capacity and must be taken into consideration.
PPS 1 para 24
A heat pump technology that absorb heat from the outside air, which can then be used to warm water for radiators or underfloor heating systems, or to warm the air in your building.
There are two main types:
An air-to-water system uses the heat to warm water. Heat pumps heat water to a lower temperature than a standard boiler system would, so they are more suitable for underfloor heating systems than radiator systems.
An air-to-air system produces warm air which is circulated by fans.
The efficiency of air source heat pump systems is measured by a coefficient of performance (CoP) - the amount of heat they produce compared to the amount of electricity needed to run them. A typical CoP for an air source heat pump is around 2.5.
Ground- and Air- source heat pumps are not completely ‘renewable’ as they require electricity to drive their pumps or compressors.
Used in the Definition of Zero Carbon Homes and Non-Domestic Buildings consultation to describe a range of solutions that can deal with the remaining building emissions, after maximising solutions that are on the site of the development.
A process in which organic matter broken down by bacteria in the absence of air, produce a gas (methane) and a solid (digestate) product. The by-products, for example biogas, can be used in a furnace, gas engine, turbine or gas-powered vehicles, and digestates can be re-used on farms as a fertiliser.
A pre-existing heat load that could be connected to a district heating network. The benefot of heat loads which exist before the DHN are that they can use heat from the DHN immediately it is available, providing an early income stream for the operatoers of the network and making it more financially attractive.
An area with statutory national landscape designation, the primary purpose of which is to conserve and enhance natural beauty. AONB are designated by the Countryside Agency.
When examining the annual heat required by a building, this term is applied to the lowest level of consistent heat demand throughout the year. Typically, this might be for domestic hot water as this is required all year round whereas space heating for example will only be required during colder periods. The baseload is a useful concept when considering heat gerating systems (such as DHNs) as it gives an indication of the minimum income that will be generated at the lowest demand period of the year.
A system that aims to balance the costs to the operator against the benefits to the environment for different techniques.
A useful gas produced from anaerobic digestion. See anaerobic digestion.
Living matter within an environmental area, for example plant material, vegetation, or agricultural waste used as a fuel or energy source. This is a 'carbon neutral' energy source because CO2 is absorbed during the life of the crop, which is then released during combustion.
see Biomass CHP
A CHP system that uses biomass as fuel. See Combined Heat and Power (CHP).
Biomass heating systems generally burns wood pellets, chips or logs to power central heating. Systems can operate using combustion to heat water (the heating medium) or air for space heating.
A network of multifunctional marine and water spaces in urban areas, the countryside in and around towns, and the wider countryside.
A fund established to support the installation of sustainable energy infrastructure (such as District Heating Networks to existing housing) the principle investment for which comes from Allowable Solutions payments made by developers to deal with carbon emissions which cannot be readily dealt with directly on their development site.
The fund may form part of a Community Infrastructure Levy.
A capital funding scheme which the domestic energy suppliers are obliged, by the Government, to make available for energy saving measures and the installation of energy saving products.
This publication provides energy benchmarks for a range of different classifications of commercial and public building types. These energy benchmarks can be multiplied by floor area data to provide an approximate energy use for commercial, industrial and public buildings of different type and size.
The process by which human activities, most specifically the burning of fossil fuels, is believed to be altering Earth's climate, leading to unpredictable and extreme weather conditions.
The world's first legally binding long-term framework to cut carbon emissions. It also creates a framework for building the UK's ability to adapt to climate change. It sets a legally binding target for the UK to reduce it's carbon emissions by 805 by 2050. It also requires the UK Government to set five yearly carbon reduction targets.
Introduced in April 2001, the CCL adds approximately 15% to typical energy bills of UK businesses. The CCL is applied to electricity, gas, coal and Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), but is not applied to any domestic supplies.
One of the Greenhouse Gases (GHG), which cause climate change. It is the most significant due to its extreme proliferation caused by the burning of fossil fuels, but not the most potent in terms of impact per unit.
A measure of Global Warming Potential (GWP) that takes into account all the Greenhouse Gases (GHG). Carbon dioxide equivalency is a quantity that describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 that would have the same Global Warming Potential (GWP), when measured over a specified timescale (generally, 100 years).
A national mandatory environmental assessment standard for all new homes launched in December 2006 by BRE.
The simultaneous generation of usable heat and power (usually electricity) in a single process, thereby reducing wasted heat and putting to use heat that would normally be wasted to the atmosphere, rivers or seas. CHP is an efficient form of decentralised energy supply providing heating and electricity at the same time. CHP’s overall fuel efficiency can be around 70-90% of the input fuel, depending on heat load; compared to typical fossil fuel power stations which are only up to around 40-50% efficient.
The successor department to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM). It is an expanded department with the remit to promote community cohesion and equality, as well as responsibility for housing, urban regeneration, planning and local government.
A proposed levy, which can be charged by Local Authorities, on most types of new development in their area. CIL charges will be based on simple formulae which relate the cost of the charge to the size and character of the development. CIL will be a valuable top-up for local communities who wish to see additional facilities in their area such as roads, public transport, open space or health centres, though it won't replace the need for mainstream public funding.
Where a developer pays a lump sum upfront, rather than making an ongoing payment for maintenance of a particular feature of the development.
A new way of assessing local public services in England. It examines how well councils are working together with other public bodies to meet the needs of the people they serve.
A one-off payment paid in addition to usage charges for gas and electricity by an energy supplier. Connection charges cover costs like cost of labour, materials, and any special expenses required to carry out the connection to the customer's requirements.
Part of the monitoring framework (Regional Spatial Strategy and Local Development Framework) to achieve a consistent and cost effective approach to data collection across the regional and local levels covering a number of national planning policy and sustainable development objectives appropriate to local and regional policy.
A mandatory carbon trading scheme designed to encourage larger organisations to manage energy consumption and emissions. The scheme, starting in April 2010, is designed to create a shift in awareness, behaviour and infrastructure. It will be administered by the Environment Agency.
The scheme will affect approximately 20,000 organisations, with around 5,000 of these required to participate in the scheme. Participating companies will be ranked in a league table for their sector, depending on their performance in reducing carbon emissions. They will also receive either a financial penalty or reward depending on where they are ranked in the table.
An open grants programme run by BRE as an award partner of the Big Lottery Fund (BIG). The grants are available to community-based organisations for the installation of microgeneration technologies, such as solar panels or biomass boilers and energy efficiency measures including loft and cavity wall insulation.
The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) was created in October 2008, to bring together:
- energy policy (previously with BERR, which is now BIS - the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills), and
- climate change mitigation policy (previously with Defra - the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)
Energy supply from local renewable and low-carbon sources (ie on-site and near-site, but not remote off-site) usually on a relatively small scale. Decentralised energy is a broad term used to denote a diverse range of technologies, including micro-renewables, which can locally serve an individual building, development or wider community and includes heating and cooling energy.
Made at a pre-planning application stage by a developer, indicating the design principles upon which a proposal is to be based. It may also be submitted in support of a planning application.
Prepared by local planning authorities, these documents outline the key development goals of the local development framework.
Development Plan Documents include the core strategy and, where needed, area action plans. There will also be an adopted proposals map which illustrates the spatial extent of policies that must be prepared and maintained to accompany all DPDs.
All DPDs must be subject to rigorous procedures of community involvement, consultation and independent examination, and adopted after receipt of the inspector's binding report. Once adopted, development control decisions must be made in accordance with them unless material considerations indicate otherwise.
DPDs form an essential part of the Local Development Framework.
Discrete choice models statistically relate the choice made by each person to the attributes of the person and the attributes of the alternatives available to the person. For example, the choice of which car a person buys is statistically related to the person’s income and age as well as to price, fuel efficiency, size, and other attributes of each available car. The models estimate the probability that a person chooses a particular alternative. The models are often used to forecast how people’s choices will change under changes in demographics and/or attributes of the alternatives.
Mandatory certificates for buildings with a total useful floor area over 1,000m2, occupied by public authorities or by institutions providing public services to a large number of persons and therefore frequently visited by those persons. The DEC must be on prominent public display and has a validity of one year. DECs show the actual energy usage of a building, the Operational Rating (OR), and help the public see the energy efficiency of a building.
A system where a centralised cooling plant (using any one of a range of technologies) provides coolth to surrounding buildings in the area by means of a network of pipes.
The pipework which connects the central energy plant to the buildings using the heat.
A capital allowances scheme which enables a business to claim 100% first-year capital allowances on their spending on qualifying plant and machinery. There are three schemes for ECAs:
- Energy-saving plant and machinery
- Low carbon dioxide emission cars and natural gas and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure
- Water conservation plant and machinery .
- Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS)
- feed-in tariffs
- smart metering
- Renewable Heat Incentive
See Biomass Fuel
Energy efficiency in this context means design measures which reduce the base energy demand froma building. This could be issues such as; ensuring high levels of insulation and air tightness to reduce heat loss and therefore heating demand, reducing solar gain (perhaps through reduced glazing, use of solar control glass, solar shading etc), using exposed thermal mass to increase the buildings ability to maintain stable internal temperatures and so on.
Energy efficiency should always be considered and inclulded in the design of a building before considering DRLC.
The conversion of waste into a useable form of energy, often heat or electricity.
Similar to the Community Infrastructure Levy, this is a fund which would be paid into by developers helping to deliver energy infrastructure projects.
A plan, produced using GIS, which maps a range of features related to the opportunity to provide sustainable energy. These features might include existing heat demand, significant existing heat loads, clusters of social housing, publicly owned buildings, producers of waste heat etc. The use of the map is to assist in identifying opportunities by enabling the spatial relationship between features to be observed.
Launched by Communities and Local Government, the certificates will give home buyers and sellers A to G ratings for their home's energy efficiency and carbon emissions.
Reports that are increasingly required by local authorities to support planning applications, responding to the relevant policies on renewable energy and sustainable design and construction.
The information and data gathered by local authorities to justify the ""soundness"" of the policy approach set out in Local Development Documents, including physical, economic, and social characteristics of an area.
An ESCO might be involved in a large scheme particularly where shared technologies are an option, especially site-wide heat networks. ESCOs typically focus on system operation and sometimes procurement, and rarely contribute the bulk of financing.Where an ESCO and/or other third party are financing the energy strategy, their investment will effectively be paid back over time through the heat and/or electricity prices paid by the consumers and, typically, a standing charge to building owners/occupiers to cover operating, maintenance and financing costs.
A scheme to incentivise renewable electricity installations up to a maximum capacity of 5 MW. The impact of FITs will significantly increase revenue for small-scale generators of renewable electricity, such as photovoltaic systems or small wind turbines. The FITs may also make it easier to obtain finance for such projects as it provides a guaranteed price for the electricity generated.
Flood attenuation is defined as the process of providing temporary water storage capacity during flood events, either naturally or through human intervention, for the purpose of reducing peak flows.
Generally low-lying areas adjacent to a watercourse, tidal lengths of a river or the sea, where water flows in times of flood or would flow but for the presence of flood defences.
An assessment of the likelihood of flooding in a particular area so that development needs and mitigation measures can be carefully considered.
Carbon-rich fuel (coal, oil and natural gas) formed from the remains of ancient animals and plants.
A means of recovering energy from waste, known as advanced thermal treatment. Waste is heated at high temperatures and a useable gas is produced.
National datasets produced by British Geological Survey providing information about potential ground movement or subsidence that can help planning decisions.
GeoSure data gives you information about:
- Collapsible deposits
- Compressible ground
- Landslides (slope instability)
- Running sand
- Shrink swell
- Soluble rocks (dissolution)
A method of mathematically representing increasing international production volumes and the associated reducing costs of technologies.
A measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares the gas in question to that of the same mass of carbon dioxide (whose GWP is by convention equal to 1).
A planning condition attached to a decision notice that prevents the start of a development until off-site works have been completed on land not controlled by the applicant.
A network of multi-functional green space, both new and existing, both rural and urban, which supports the natural and ecological processes and is integral to the health and quality of life of sustainable communities’
Naturally occurring examples include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Some human activities increase these gases, including fossil fuel combustion within motor vehicles and some power stations.
Greywater is wastewater generated from activities such as handwashing, laundry, dishwashing, and bathing which can be recycled on-site for uses such as landscape irrigation, and constructed wetlands.
Greywater recycling systems can be installed in new or existing buildings and have the potential to meet a significant proportion of domestic demand for water.
A heat pump technology using stored thermal energy in the ground to heat or cool the building. Beneath the Earth’s surface the ground will have a relatively stable temperature throughout the year. This will be approximately the same as the average mean annual air temperature in the particular location.
There are two main types:
Open Loop uses a submersible pump removing the ground water for example from chalk cracks and aquifers.
Closed Loop uses water or antifreeze solution circulated through plastic pipes buried beneath the earth's surface. Closed loops can be installed in three ways: horizontally, vertically or as an underwater coil.
These systems are usually used to warm water for radiators or underfloor heating systems. It can also be used to pre-heat water before it goes into a more conventional boiler.
Ground- and Air- source heat pumps are not completely ‘renewable’ as they require electricity to drive their pumps or compressors.
An important part of the natural water cycle present underground, within strata known as aquifers.
The Government’s Heat and Energy Saving Strategy sets out an aim for emissions from existing buildings to be approaching zero carbon by 2050. The policies set out aimed to reduce annual emissions by up to 44 million tonnes of CO2 in 2020 – the equivalent of a 30% reduction in emissions from households compared to 2006 – making a significant contribution to meeting the UK carbon budgets.
A key parameter for planning district heating networks showing the density of the heat demand in a particular area.
A visual representation of the heat demand in a given area.
The principle pipework distribution spine of a district heating network.
The national housing and regeneration delivery agency for England.
A technology generating electricity from running water, usually a small stream. Small or ""micro"" hydroelectricity systems can produce enough electricity for lighting and electrical appliances in an average home.
Hydroelectricity systems are also called hydro power systems or just hydro systems.
Any building or surface on the land which effectively creates a physical barrier to water penetration on the surface of any part of the land.
The controlled burning of waste. Energy may also be recovered in the form of heat (see Energy from Waste).
An independent body which makes decisions on applications for nationally significant infrastructure projects. These are the large scale facilities that support the economy and vital public services. This includes railways, large wind farms, power stations, reservoirs, harbours, airports and sewage treatment works.
The IPC was set up under the Government’s Planning Act 2008, alongside other reforms, to make the application process for nationally significant infrastructure projects faster, fairer and easier for people to get involved in.
The maximum rated output of a generator, prime mover, or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions designated by the manufacturer. Installed capacity is commonly expressed in megawatts (MW) and is usually indicated on a nameplate physically attached to the unit.
A measure of the return on investment taking into account both the size and timing of cash flows. Alternatively, the interest rate which, when used as the discount rate for a series of cash flows, gives a net present value of zero.
The gas generated in any landfill site accepting biodegradable material. It consists of a mixture of gases, mainly methane and carbon dioxide.
Formed in 1997, the LGA is a voluntary lobbying organisation, acting as the voice of the local government sector.
The LGA works as part of the LGA Group, which consists of five partner organisations working together to improve local government.
A simple tool designed to help organisations to assess their exposure to weather and climate. The LCLIP process highlights a locality’s vulnerability to severe weather events and how these events affect local communities as well as local authority assets, infrastructure and capacity to deliver services.
A collection of local development documents produced by the local planning authority which collectively form the spatial planning strategy for its area. The core strategy within the LDF sets out the vision, strategic objectives and delivery strategy for achieving these. The LDF as a whole is the spatial expression of the sustainable community strategy (SCS) for the area.
Each LDF includes one or more statutory development plan documents, which are used by planning authorities to control development and determine planning applications. These can include area action plans (AAPs) or supplementary development documents (SSDs), which set more detailed planning requirements.
The aim of the new LDF system is to allow local planning authorities to respond to changing local circumstances. It also provides a greater emphasis on community consultation and engagement in the planning process, when compared with the previous system.
An overall partnership of people that brings together organisations from the public, private, community and voluntary sector within a local authority area, with the objective of improving people's quality of life.
Two main sources, waves (originating from solar energy) and tides (resulting from the gravitational pull of the moon and sun). Wave and tidal energy devices convert the oceans’ movement into electricity that is carried to shore using undersea cables and connected to the electricity grid. "
The treatment of residual waste using a combination of mechanical separation and biological treatment.
Named after the London borough that established it in 2003, the Merton rule requires the use of renewable energy onsite to reduce annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the built environment.
It is typically given in terms of a percentage of the predicted buildings CO2 emissions, which must be offset by renewable technologies. It is sometimes referred to as the ""10% rule"".
A local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square miles (for example a valley).
This refers to the use of on-site technologies to generate heat and/or electricity from low or zero carbon sources.
Actions taken to reduce the impact of human activity on the climate system, primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Household waste and any other waste collected by a waste collection authority such as municipal parks and gardens waste and waste resulting from the clearance of fly-tipped materials.
Set out in LDF good practice guide (July 2008), NCOIs aim to provide a consistent data source for a particular region in order to inform and develop spatial planning performance at the regional level. The indicators are
The aim of this National Indicator (NI) is to measure the progress of local authorities in reducing CO2 emissions from the relevant buildings and transport used to deliver their functions and to encourage them to demonstrate leadership on tackling climate change.
This National Indicator (NI) relies on centrally produced statistics to measure end user CO2 emissions in the Local Area from:
- Business and Public Sector,
- Domestic housing, and
- Road transport.
This National Indicator (NI) is a process-based indicator that aims to embed the management of climate risks and opportunities across the local authority and partners’ services, plans and estates and to take appropriate adaptive actions.
The indicator has been developed in consultation with the GO, UKCIP, LGA, EA and the Audit Commission.
Launched in October 2000 in Nottingham, the Declaration is signed by local authorities and their local strategic partners pledging to systematically address the causes of climate change and to prepare their community for its impacts.
Refers to areas of buildings which are not on the mains gas network.
Properly called Super Output Areas, these are a set of non-varying national geographies which divide the country into small areas. They are used for collecting, aggregating and reporting statistics.
See Super Output Areas.
The Approved Document of the Building Regulations which deals with the conservation of fuel and power.
Renewable system converting sunlight into electricity, which can be used to power (or partially power) electrical equipment and appliances.
This Act introduces a new stream-lined system for decisions on applications to build nationally significant infrastructure projects (NSIPs), such as major energy generation, railways, ports, major roads, airports and water and waste infrastructure. The act also introduces the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL).
Legal agreements between a planning authority and a developer, or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer, that ensure that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken. For example, the provision of highways. Sometimes called "Section 106" agreements.
Issued by central government to replace the existing Planning Policy Guidance notes in order to provide greater clarity and to remove from national policy advice on practical implementation, which is better expressed as guidance rather than policy.
Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) sets out the Government's overarching planning policies on the delivery of sustainable development through the planning system.
Planning Policy Statement 22 (PPS22) sets out the Government's policies for renewable energy, which planning authorities should have regard to when preparing local development documents and when taking planning decisions.
Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS25) sets out Government policy on development and flood risk. Its aims are to ensure that flood risk is taken into account at all stages in the planning process to avoid inappropriate development in areas at risk of flooding, and to direct development away from areas of highest risk. Where new development is, exceptionally, necessary in such areas, policy aims to make it safe, without increasing flood risk elsewhere, and, where possible, reducing flood risk overall.
Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing (PPS3) underpins the delivery of the Government’s strategic housing policy objectives and our goal to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to live in a decent home, which they can afford in a community where they want to live.
New regime for council borrowing which aims to give councils more freedom to decide how much they can afford to borrow.
A simple system where runoff from roofs and impervious areas is collected and utilised. RWH requires less treatment than greywater recycling, if being used for non-potable demand such as toilet flushing. RWH is a simple technology that has been used for thousands of years as a way of storing water throughout the year, rather than relying on the seasonality of rainfall.
A fuel product produced from the combustible fraction of waste.
A strategy for how a region should look in 15 to 20 years time and possibly longer. The Regional Spatial Strategy identifies the scale and distribution of new housing in the region, indicates areas for regeneration, expansion or sub-regional planning and specifies priorities for the environment, transport, infrastructure, economic development, agriculture, minerals and waste treatment and disposal. Most former Regional Planning Guidance is now considered RSS and forms part of the development plan. Regional Spatial Strategies are prepared by Regional Planning Bodies.
High-level documents that set out a vision for sustainable development in each region, and the region's contribution to sustainable development at the national level. In doing so, frameworks take a wide overview of regional activity and the regional impact of government policy.
That element of a building’s CO2 emissions which are controlled by Part L of the Building Regulations (space and water heating, ventilation, lighting, pumps, fans & controls).
Includes energy for heating and cooling as well as generating electricity. Renewable energy covers those energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment – from the wind, the fall of water, the movement of the oceans, from the sun and also from biomass. Low-carbon technologies are those that can help reduce carbon emissions.
Renewable and/or low-carbon energy supplies include, but not exclusively, those from biomass and energy crops; CHP/CCHP (and micro-CHP); waste heat that would otherwise be generated directly or indirectly from fossil fuel; energy-from-waste; ground source heating and cooling; hydro; solar thermal and photovoltaic generation; wind generation.
A database containing information on all relevant renewable energy sources in the United Kingdom which is being updated by AEA on behalf of the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC).
RESTATS currently holds information on heat and electricity generated from all the following sources:
- Biofuels, including the combustion of biomass and wastes, co-firing, gas from landfill sites and digestion processes
- Hydro-electricity, both large and small-scale
- Wave power
- Wind turbines and wind-farms - onshore and offshore
- Solar - active solar heating and photovoltaics
- Geothermal aquifers
- liquid biofuels for transport (biodiesel and bioethanol).
The Energy Act 2008 allows for the setting up of a Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), which would provide financial assistance to generators of renewable heat and to some producers of renewable heat, such as producers of biomethane. The Government aims to have this in place by April 2011. The incentive payments will be funded by a levy on suppliers of fossil fuels for heat. The proposal is that the RHI will cover a wide range of technologies including biomass, solar hot water, air and ground source heat pumps, biomass CHP, biogas produced from anaerobic digestion and injection of biomethane into the gas grid.
As with FITs, the impact of the RHI is that it will make generation of renewable heat more financially viable than it is currently
Certificates awarded to renewable electricity generators related to their output. See Renewables Obligation (RO).
The Renewables Obligation (RO) is the main current financial support scheme for renewable electricity in the UK, and is administered by Ofgem. It obliges electricity suppliers in the UK to source a proportion of their electricity from renewable supplies. They demonstrate this has been achieved by showing they have the required quantity of Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), which renewable electricity generators are awarded for their output.
Salix is an independent social enterprise, a not for profit company limited by guarantee, which delivers interest free funding to accelerate investment in energy efficiency technologies across the UK public sector.
This is the methodology which must be used to demonstrate compliance of any new dwellings with Part L of the Building Regulations.
The cost to society of the environmental damage caused by a tonne of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere.
Simple payback is a frequently used measure which indicates how quickly an investment, in this case in DRLC, will it's capital cost through savings, income or a combination of the two.
Simple payback is calculated by taking the total capital investment and dividing by the total annual savings and income less any ongoing costs such as maintenance. The resulting figure is time to recoup outlay in years.
A site identified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000) as an area of special interest by reason of any of its flora, fauna, geological or physiographical features (basically, plants, animals, and natural features relating to the Earth's structure).
A voluntary assessment of the environmental performance of an office fit-out.
see Photovoltaics (PV)
Heat gains in a building that results from solar radiation. Also known as solar heat gain or passive solar gain.
This is primarily a hot-water technology. It works by absorbing energy from the sun and then heating water (using heat exchangers). It can be used to provide hot water at temperatures of 55-65ºC.
An efficient solar water-heating system can meet all of a building’s hot water needs during summer, but much less in winter. It will still provide good performance during cloudy conditions.
see Solar Hot Water (SHW)
Changes in the distribution of activities in space and the linkages between them in terms of the use and development of land.
Spatial planning goes beyond traditional land use planning to bring together and integrate policies for the development and use of land with other policies and programmes which influence the nature of places and how they function.
This will include policies which can impact on land use by influencing the demands on, or needs for, development, but which are not capable of being delivered solely or mainly through the granting or refusal of planning permission and which may be implemented by other means.
A fixed cost paid in addition to usage charges for gas and electricity by an energy supplier. Standing charges cover costs such as meter reading, maintenance, connection to the energy network and, in the case of gas, emergency services.
These policies are implemented directly through the grant and refusal of planning permission and are part of the Regional Spatial Strategy.
Areas identified by Local Authorities as viable for a district heating network.
The Housing Green Paper 'Homes for the Future: More affordable, more sustainable' calls on all local authorities to play a stronger role in addressing the housing needs of residents.
It encourages councils to develop their strategic housing role by using the full range of housing and land use planning powers. They should be working with partners to meet the needs of residents by ensuring the delivery of new and affordable housing while making the best use of existing stock.
An assessment carried out by local authorities of land availability for housing, over a 15 year period, in their areas as outlined in Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing (PPS3).
A Super Output Area (SOA) is a geographical area designed for the collection and publication of small area statistics. It is used on the Neighbourhood Statistics site, and has a wider application throughout national statistics. SOAs give an improved basis for comparison throughout the country because the units are more similar in size of population than, for example, electoral wards. see Output Areas
A Local Development Document that may cover a range of issues, thematic or site specific, and provides further detail of policies and proposals in a 'parent' Development Plan Document.
Covering a range of issues, both thematic and site specific and provides further detail of policies and proposals in a development plan.
All water naturally open to the atmosphere, concerning rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries and wetlands.
Reports that are increasingly required by local authorities to support planning applications, responding to the relevant policies on sustainable design and construction.
A widely used definition drawn up by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987: ""Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.""
The UK government has set out four aims for sustainable development in its strategy A Better Quality of Life, a Strategy for Sustainable Development in the UK.
The four aims, to be achieved simultaneously, are:
- social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
- effective protection of the environment
- prudent use of natural resources
- maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment.
A sequence of management practices and control structures designed to drain surface water in a more sustainable fashion than some conventional techniques. They are designed to improve the rate and manner of absorption of water by hard and soft surfaces, in order to reduce the total amount, flow and rate of surface water that runs directly to rivers through stormwater systems.
See Renewable and low-carbon energy
See Marine Energy
Established in 1997 to help co-ordinate scientific research into the impacts of climate change, and to help organisations adapt to those unavoidable impacts. The majority of UKCIP’s funding is from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA).
Provides climate information for the UK up to the end of this century. Projections of future changes to our climate are provided, based on simulations from climate models.
Moderating high summer temperatures, through for example the layout of urban open
space and shading from trees. Climate change will exacerbate the temperature gradient that rises from the rural fringe and peaks in city centres. This is described as ‘the urban heat island’ because the warmer urban air lies in a ‘sea’ of cooler rural air.
Under Part L of the Building Regulations, this is defined as waste heat from industrial processes and power stations rated at more than 10MWe and with a power efficiency >35%.
Environment Agency define water neutrality as where total water use after development does not exceed total water use before development.
Water stress is a situation where the availability of water is a major constraint on human activity.
See Marine Energy
Wind turbines harness the power of the wind and use it to generate electricity.
Small-scale wind refers to energy generated by wind turbines that are rated less than 50kW. There are a number of designs of small-scale wind turbines – with horizontal or vertical axes.
Large-scale wind farms can be either sited offshore or onshore.
see Biomass Heating
A cultural or natural site of outstanding universal value designated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), for example Durham Cathedral and Stonehenge.
Xeriscaping and xerogardening refers to landscaping and gardening in ways that reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental irrigation.
Over a year, the net carbon emissions from all energy use in the building are zero. This includes energy use from unregulated appliances (cooking, washing, electronics) as well as space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and hot water.
The UK Government has set out plans for all new homes to be zero carbon from 2016; new schools to be zero carbon from 2016; and all new non-domestic to be zero carbon from 2019.